Trends in area, production and productivity of grapes in Maharashtra
M B Nichit, Aparajita P Singh
Grape (Vitis vinifera) is an important fruit crop in India. Grape is the third most widely cultivated fruit after citrus and banana. The total world production of grapes is estimated to be about 68.9 million tonnes, next only to citrus and bananas and is followed by apples. Grape scientifically is called Vitis vinifera L. and is also known as 'queen of fruits'. Cultivation of grapes in the country is very much localized, being confined primarily to four states, viz., Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, which together account for more than 90 per cent of the area and production. The grape is cultivated in the largest area i.e. 139 thousand ha and the production is around 2920 thousand tons in India in 2017-18(NHB). Major grape-growing states in India are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. In India mainly Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu jointly contribute to more than 90 per cent of the total area and production of grapes. Maharashtra is ranked first in production of grapes, producing about 62.7% of the total production of grapes in the country. The total production of grapes is 0.77 Million Tons, which is highest in the country. An AEZ has been established for grapes covering the Districts of Nasik, Pune, Kolhapur, Satara and Sangli. The present strategy is to diversify into wine production. A number of wineries have come up at Nashik and Sangli and adjoining areas and Maharashtra is now producing wines of international quality. Total export of grapes from India is 216.582 thousand MT, valuing Rs. 2038.63 crores during 2018-19. The grape export from India was started in the year 1991 after economic liberalization. There is a phenomenal rise in export of grapes from India, as only 14,606 tons were exported during 2001-2002 which has increased to 2920 thousand tons in 2017-2018. The major importing countries of India's grapes were Netherland, Bangladesh, Russia, UK, Germany, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Hong Kong, Thailand, and Oman. The compound growth rates of area and production were 7.93 and 6.61 percent per annum which were highly significant at 1 percent level, respectively. The compound growth rate in area and production of grapes in Maharashtra has shown increasing trend during the period of 25 years. It indicate that the area and production of grape over the period 1993-94 to 2017-18 was increasing at higher rates. It was also seen from the results that the growth rate indicated by compound growth rate have higher magnitude than the linear growth rate for area and production. The result revealed that the area, production and productivity under grape crop was increasing at higher rate as it is major crop in Nashik, Sangli and Pune districts in Maharashtra and it has good opportunities for export.