A The National Institute of Personal Management (NIPM) of India has defined human resources – personal management as “that part of management which is concerned with people at work and with their relationship within an enterprise. Its aim is to bring together and develop into an effective organization of the men and women who make up enterprise and having regard for the wellbeing of the individuals and of working groups, to enable them to make their best contribution to its success”. The basic objective of human resource management is to contribute to the realization of the organizational goals. Awareness regarding Human Resource Management was felt during the industrial revolution around 1850 in Western Europe and U.S.A. Only during the beginning of 20th century, it was felt in India. Organizations come across too many challenges or uncertainties about human resource of 21st century including globalization, advent of the latest technology use, more and more innovations, economic and political instability and ethical and ecological challenges. Hence the main objective of this paper is to focus on Human Resources Management in the 21st Century.